An introduction to the study of experimental medicine

TitleAn introduction to the study of experimental medicine
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1950
AuthorsBernard, C
JournalJournal of the American Pharmaceutical Association
Start Page597
Date Published10/1950


Part 1: Experimental Reasoning

Chapter 1: Observation and Experiment
i. Various definitions of observation and experiment
ii. Gaining experience and relying on observation is different from making experiments and making observations
iii. The investigator; scientific research
iv. Observers and experimenters; the sciences of observation and of experiment
v. Experiment is fundamentally only induced observation
vi. In experimental reasoning, experimenters are not separate from observers

Chapter 2: The A Priori Idea and Doubt in Experimental Reasoning
i. Experimental truths are objective or external
ii. Intuition or feeling begets the experimental idea
iii. Experimenters must doubt, avoid fixed ideas, and always keep their freedom of mind
iv. The independent character of the experimental method
v. Induction and deduction in experimental reasoning
vi. Doubt in experimental reasoning
vii. The principle of the experimental criterion
viii. Proof and counterproof

Part 2: Experimentation with Living Beings

Part 3: Applications of the Experimental Method to the Study of Vital Phenomena

Alternate JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Original PublicationIntroduction à l'étude de la médecine expérimentale (1865)