Ioannidis 2005 Why Most Published Research Findings are False

  • [...] let us define bias as the combination of various design, data, analysis, and presentation factors that tend to produce research findings when they should not be produced.
  • Bias should not be confused with chance variability that causes some findings to be false by chance even though the study design, data, analysis, and presentation are perfect.
  • Bias can entail manipulation in the analysis or reporting of findings. Selective or distorted reporting is a typical form of such bias.
  • Diminishing bias through enhanced research standards and curtailing of prejudices may also help. However, this may require a change in scientific mentality that might be difficult to achieve.